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ESE Working Principle

  • Source:REPSUN
  • Date:03/12/2024

The working principle of REPSUN ESE:

The working principle of early streamer emission air terminal lightning rod is to generate a faster upward lead than a regular lightning rod.

When lightning clouds form, an electric field is generated between the clouds and the ground, and electric field intensity can reach 10kV/m or even higher. As a result, corona discharge begins to appear on the protruding parts of the ground or metal components. When a downward leader is generated inside the lightning cloud layer, lightning strikes begin. The downward leader charge moves toward the ground in the form of a ladder. As the downward leader approaches the ground, it emits an upward-facing leader from a prominent part of the ground. When the upward leader meets the downward leader, a strong “Neutralization” process occurs, resulting in an extremely high current (tens to hundreds of kiloamps), which is the main discharge stage of lightning, accompanied by Thunder and Flash. Other buildings on the ground may generate several upward leaders.The first upward leaders that meets the downward leader determines the location of the lightning strike. Before the formation of a natural upward leaders, ESE will first generate a leader, rapidly propagating in the direction of lightning until ESE captures the lightning and conducts it into the earth.

It has been proved in the laboratory that the beneficial triggering time is called“∆t”, which endows ESE with more effective lightning protection function. 


A. The ionization device is charged via the lower electrodes using the ambient electrical filed (several million volts/meter when storms are prevalent). This means REPSUN ESE lightning rod system is a fully autonomous system requiring no external power supply.

B. The ionization phenomenon is controlled by a device which detects the appearance of a downward leader, the local electrical field increases rapidly when a discharge is imminent. REPSUN ESE lightning rod detects charges in the field, making it the first E.S.E. air terminal to react at the precise moment when the downward leader develops from the cloud to the ground.

C. Early triggering of the upward leader using a system of spark ionization between the upper electrodes and the central tip. REPSUN ESE lightning rod’s ability is to trigger an upward leader ahead of any other protruding point in the protected area ensures it will be the preferential point of impact for the lightning discharge.


Smart ESE Protection Area and calculation formula:

The protection area(rp) of a Smart-ESE lightning conductor is calculated according to French Standard NFC 17-102:2011, Thus:

Rp(h)= √ (2rh-h2+ (2r+∆(2r+∆) if h ≥5m


Rp=hxRp(5)/5 if 2m≤h≤5m

The protection area depends on a number of factor:

h (m): is the height of the ESEAT tip over the horizontal plane through the furthest point of the object/area to be protected.

r(m):20m,30m,45m or 60m according to the Protection Level I,II,Ill or Iv assessed for the site using the Risk Analysis calculation (NFC 17-102:2011 Annex A).

∆(m) : ∆= ∆T×10 Field experience has proved that is equal to the efficiency obtained during the ESEAT evaluation tests.